Collections of Dilip Prakash

Archive for the ‘news’ Category

I am really sorry for posting this late… So i thought i can briefly describe the problem i had with my Iphone on charging…… Hope it will help you…

I bought a 3G – IPhone which is Unlocked and JailBroken.. Every thing was good with the IPhone for 2 weeks after which i got a trouble..

My Phone was not charging more than 20 percent.. I was totally schoked..

So i tried Googling and found a method of  Soft Reset (i.e by pressing lock button and the main button for few seconds and resetting)..

I even tried that 4-5 times but nothing seems to be working out…

Then i found another solution by charging it with the PC. so i tried connecting it to my Laptop and charged it…

This time it worked… but it was charging only till 90 percent (a increse of 70%), i was a bit happy that it charged till 90%.. and the dollars din’t go in Vain.. I tried this 3- 4 times… every time it was charging till 90%…

But if the battery becomes low and if i started charging with my wall charger it will charge only 20%

So i started thinking, i will have to depend on my laptop to use my phone…

Finally…………

I can say it as a Miracle day… i charged my Iphone using my laptop as usual and kept it… but that night i was planning to go to my friend’s home… so i thought let me charge my phone before going to his home..

I saw the charge level of battery was 60+% and i connected with my wall charger …. just for a try …. 🙂

but to my surprise it started charging and charged till 100% (i was really excited and thanked god a lot)…

After that i never had a problem with charging…. Now i am happy with my IPhone… If you find this useful please do post your comments…

The swine flu H1N1 has got everyone of us worried, it has now become a national concern.

The below url runs a tutorial on the H1N1 virus, the infection, symptoms, emergency signs, treatment and prevention. The tutorial repeatedly talk about the best way of prevention is washing our hands regularly…

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tutorials/h1n1flu/htm/_no_50_no_0.htm

Taking a cue from the tutorial we have kept sanitizers near the entrance on all the floors, we expect all of us to use it as and when we feel like…

Let us all do our part in controlling the outburst of H1N1 Flu by washing our hands off it.

Hi All,Government of India has an online Grievance forum at http://www.pgportal.gov.in

Can you imagine this is happening in INDIA?

The govt. wants people to use this tool to highlight the problems they faced while dealing with Government officials or departments like

1)       Railways

2)       Posts

3)       Telecom (incl. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) &
Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL )

4)       Urban Development
( Delhi Development Authority (DDA) ,
Land & Development Office (L&DO) , Central Public Works Department (CPWD), etc)

5)       Petroleum & Natural Gas

6)       Civil Aviation ( Air India , Airports Authority of India , etc)

7)       Shipping , Road Transport & Highways

8)       Tourism

9)       Public Sector Banks

10)   Public Sector Insurance Companies
GIC of India Life Insurance Corporation of India National Insurance Company Ltd. The New India Assurance Company Ltd. The Oriental Insurance Company Ltd. United India Insurance Company Ltd.

11)  National Saving Scheme of Ministry of Finance

12)   Employees’ Provident Fund Organization

13)   Regional Passport Authorities

14)   Central Government Health Scheme

15)   Central Board of Secondary Education

16)   Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan

17)   National Institute of Open Schooling

18)   Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti

19)  Central Universities

20) ESI Hospitals and Dispensaries directly controlled by ESI Corporation under Ministry of Labour

Many of us say that these things don’t work in India .

Couple of months back, the Faridabad Municipal Corporation laid new roads in his area and the residents were very happy about it. But 2 weeks later, BSNL dug up the newly laid roads to install new cables which annoyed all the residents. A resident used the above listed grievance forum to highlight his concern. To his surprise, BSNL and Municipal Corporation of Faridabad were served a show cause notice and the guy received a copy of the notice in one week. Government has asked the MC and BSNL about the goof up as it’s clear that both the government departments were not in sync at all.

So use this grievance forum and educate others who don’t know about this facility.

This way we can at least raise our concerns instead of just talking about the ‘System’ in India .

Invite your friends to contribute for many such happenings.

PLEASE SHARE THIS AND GET A BETTER FUTURE & FORWARD THIS MAIL TO AS MANY AS POSSIBLE.

      Give people more than they expect and do it cheerfully.
      Memorize your favorite poem.
      Don’t believe all you hear, spend all you have or sleep all you want.
      When you say, “I love you”, mean it.
      When you say, “I’m sorry”, look the person in the eye.

Be engaged at least six months before you get married.
      Believe in love at first sight.
      Never laugh at anyone’s dreams.
      Love deeply and passionately. You might get hurt but it’s the only way to live life completely.
      In disagreements, fight fairly. No name calling.

      Don’t judge people by their relatives.
      Talk slowly but think quickly.
      When someone asks you a question you don’t want to answer, smile and ask, “Why do you want to know?”
      Remember that great love and great achievements involve great risk.
      Call your mom.

      Say “bless you” when you hear someone sneeze.
      When you lose, don’t lose the lesson.
      Remember the three R’s: Respect for self; Respect for others; Responsibility for all your actions.
      Don’t let a little dispute injure a great friendship.
      When you realize you’ve made a mistake, take immediate steps to correct it.

      Smile when picking up the phone. The caller will hear it in your voice.
      Marry a man/woman you love to talk to. As you get older, their conversational skills will be as important as any other.
      Spend some time alone.
      Open your arms to change, but don’t let go of your values.
      Remember that silence is sometimes the best answer.

      Read more books and watch less TV.
      Live a good, honorable life. Then when you get older and think back, you’ll get to enjoy it a second time.
      Trust in God but lock your car.
      A loving atmosphere in your home is so important. Do all you can to create a tranquil harmonious home.
      In disagreements with loved ones, deal with the current situation. Don’t bring up the past.

      Read between the lines.
      Share your knowledge. It’s a way to achieve immortality.
      Be gentle with the earth.
      Pray. There’s immeasurable power in it.
      Never interrupt when you are being flattered.

      Mind your own business.
      Don’t trust a man/woman who doesn’t close his/her eyes when you kiss.
      At least once a year, go someplace you’ve never been before.
      If you make a lot of money, put it to use helping others while you are living. That is wealth’s         greatest satisfaction.
      Remember that not getting what you want is sometimes a stroke of luck.

      Learn the rules then break some.
      Remember that the best relationship is one where your love for each other is greater than your need for each other.
      Judge your success by what you had to give up in order to get it.
      Remember that your character is your destiny.
      Approach love and cooking with reckless abandon.

The Films Which are Highlighted in Red are the Winners and others are Nominated for that category

Actress in a Leading Role

Anne Hathaway (Rachel Getting Married)

Angelina Jolie (Changeling)

Melissa Leo (Frozen River)

Meryl Streep (Doubt)

Kate Winslet (The Reader)

Best Costume Design

Australia

The Curious Case of Benjamin Button

The Duchess

Milk

Revolutionary Road

Best Cinematography

Changeling

The Curious Case of Benjamin Button

The Dark Knight

The Reader

Slumdog Millionaire

Animated Feature Film

Bolt

King Fu Panda

Wall-E

Best Director

The Curious Case of Benjamin Button

Frost/Nixon

Milk

The Reader

Slumdog Millionaire

Best Foreign Language Film

The Baader Meinh OF Complex

The Class

Departures

Revanche

Waltz With Bashir

Best Film Editing

The Curious Case of Benjamin Button

The Dark Knight

Frost/Nixon

Milk

Slumdog Millionaire

Best Sound Mixing

The Curious Case Of Benjamin Button

The Dark Knight

Slumdog Millionaire

Wall-E

Wanted

Best Short Film (Live Action)

Auf Der Strecke (On The Line)

Manon On The Asphalt

New Boy

The Pig

Spielzeugland (Toyland)

Best Actor in a Leading Role

Richard Jenkins (The Visitor)

Frank Langella (Frost/Nixon)

Sean Penn (Milk)

Brad Pitt (The Curious Case of Benjamin Button)

Mickey Rourke (The Wrestler)

Best Picture

The Curious Case of Benjamin Button

Frost/Nixon

Milk

The Reader

Slumdog Millionaire

Best Music (Song)

Down to Earth (Wall-E)

Jai Ho (Slumdog Millionaire)

O Saya (Slumdog Millionaire)

Best Writing (Adapted Screenplay)

The Curious Case Of Benjamin Button

Doubt

Frost/Nixon

The Reader

Slumdog Millionaire

Art Direction

Changeling

The Curious Case of Benjamin Button

The Dark Knight

The Duchess

Revolutionary Road

Best Writing (Original Screenplay)

Frozen River

Happy-Go-Lucky

In Bruges

Milk

Wall-E

Actress in a Supporting Role

Amy Adams (Doubt)

Penelope Cruz (Vicky Cristina Barcelona)

Viola Davis (Doubt)

Taraji P Henson (The Curious Case of Benjamin Button)

Marisa Tomei (The Wrestler)

Actor in a Supporting Role

Josh Brolin (Milk)

Robert Downey Jr (Tropic Thunder)

Philip Seymour Hoffman (Doubt)

Heath Ledger (The Dark Knight)

Michael Shannon (Revolutionary Road)

Best Makeup

The Curious Case of Benjamin Button

The Dark Knight

Hellboy II: The Golden Army

Best Music (Score)

The Curious Case of Benjamin Button

Defiance

Milk

Slumdog Millionaire

Wall-E

Best Sound Editing

The Dark Knight

Iron Man

Slumdog Millionaire

Wall-E

Wanted

Best Documentary Feature

The Betrayal (Nerakhoon)

Encounter At The End Of The World

The Garden

Man On Wire

Trouble The Water

Best Visual Effects

The Curious Case Of Benjamin Button

The Dark Knight

Iron Man

Best Documentary Short Subject

The Conscience Of Nhem En

The Final Inch

Smile Pinki

The Witness – From The Balcony Of Room 306

Best Short Film (Animated)

La Maison En Petite Cubes

Lavatory-Lovestory

Oktapodi

Presto

This Way Up

This is really a nice collection. Might be informative and useful to you all.

Toll Free Numbers in India ,Please Share it to all you know in India .Bookmark this Link too.

Airlines
Indian Airlines – 1800 180 1407
Jet Airways – 1800 22 5522
Spice Jet – 1800 180 3333
Air India — 1800 22 7722
Kingfisher – 1800 180 0101

Banks
ABN AMRO – 1800 11 2224
Canara Bank – 1800 44 6000
Citibank – 1800 44 2265
Corporation Bank – 1800 443 555
Development Credit Bank – 1800 22 5769
HDFC Bank – 1800 227 227
ICICI Bank – 1800 333 499
ICICI Bank NRI – 1800 22 4848
IDBI Bank – 1800 11 6999
Indian Bank – 1800 425 1400
ING Vysya – 1800 44 9900
Kotak Mahindra Bank – 1800 22 6022
Lord Krishna Bank – 1800 11 2300
Punjab National Bank – 1800 122 222
State Bank of India – 1800 44 1955
Syndicate Bank – 1800 44 6655

Automobiles
Mahindra Scorpio – 1800 22 6006
Maruti – 1800 111 515
Tata Motors – 1800 22 5552
Windshield Experts – 1800 11 3636

Computers/IT
Adrenalin – 1800 444 445
AMD – 1800 425 6664
Apple Computers – 1800 444 683
Canon – 1800 333 366
Cisco Systems – 1800 221 777
Compaq – HP – 1800 444 999
Data One Broadband – 1800 424 1800
Dell – 1800 444 026
Epson – 1800 44 0011
eSys – 3970 0011
Genesis Tally Academy – 1800 444 888
HCL – 1800 180 8080
IBM – 1800 443 333
Lexmark – 1800 22 4477
Marshal’s Point – 1800 33 4488
Microsoft – 1800 111 100
Microsoft Virus Update – 1901 333 334
Seagate – 1800 180 1104
Symantec – 1800 44 5533
TVS Electronics – 1800 444 566
WeP Peripherals – 1800 44 6446
Wipro – 1800 333 312
Xerox – 1800 180 1225
Zenith – 1800 222 004

Indian Railway General Enquiry       131
Indian Railway
Central Enquiry     131
Indian Railway
Reservation     131
Indian Railway
Railway Reservation Enquiry     1345,1335,1330
Indian Railway
Centralised Railway Enquiry     1330/1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/9

Couriers/Packers & Movers
ABT Courier – 1800 44 8585
AFL Wizz – 1800 22 9696
Agarwal Packers & Movers – 1800 11 4321
Associated Packers P Ltd – 1800 21 4560
DHL – 1800 111 345
FedEx – 1800 22 6161
Goel Packers & Movers – 1800 11 3456
UPS – 1800 22 7171

Home Appliances
Aiwa/Sony – 1800 11 1188
Anchor Switches – 1800 22 7979
Blue Star – 1800 22 2200
Bose Audio – 1800 11 2673
Bru Coffee Vending Machines – 1800 44 7171
Daikin Air Conditioners – 1800 444 222
DishTV – 1800 12 3474
Faber Chimneys – 1800 21 4595
Godrej – 1800 22 5511
Grundfos Pumps – 1800 33 4555
LG – 1901 180 9999
Philips – 1800 22 4422
Samsung – 1800 113 444
Sanyo – 1800 11 0101
Voltas – 1800 33 4546
WorldSpace Satellite Radio – 1800 44 5432

Investments/ Finance
CAMS – 1800 44 2267
Chola Mutual Fund – 1800 22 2300
Easy IPO’s – 3030 5757
Fidelity Investments – 1800 180 8000
Franklin Templeton Fund – 1800 425 4255
J M Morgan Stanley – 1800 22 0004
Kotak Mutual Fund – 1800 222 626
LIC Housing Finance – 1800 44 0005
SBI Mutual Fund – 1800 22 3040
Sharekhan – 1800 22 7500
Tata Mutual Fund – 1800 22 0101

Travel
Club Mahindra Holidays – 1800 33 4539
Cox & Kings – 1800 22 1235
God TV Tours – 1800 442 777
Kerala Tourism – 1800 444 747
Kumarakom Lake Resort – 1800 44 5030
Raj Travels & Tours – 1800 22 9900
Sita Tours – 1800 111 911
SOTC Tours – 1800 22 3344

Healthcare
Best on Health – 1800 11 8899
Dr Batras – 1800 11 6767
GlaxoSmithKline – 1800 22 8797
Johnson & Johnson – 1800 22 8111
Kaya Skin Clinic – 1800 22 5292
LifeCell – 1800 44 5323
Manmar Technologies – 1800 33 4420
Pfizer – 1800 442 442
Roche Accu-Chek – 1800 11 45 46
Rudraksha – 1800 21 4708
Varilux Lenses – 1800 44 8383
VLCC – 1800 33 1262

Insurance
AMP Sanmar – 1800 44 2200
Aviva – 1800 33 2244
Bajaj Allianz – 1800 22 5858
Chola MS General Insurance – 1800 44 5544
HDFC Standard Life – 1800 227 227
LIC – 1800 33 4433
Max New York Life – 1800 33 5577
Royal Sundaram – 1800 33 8899
SBI Life Insurance – 1800 22 9090

Hotel Reservations
GRT Grand – 1800 44 5500
InterContinental Hotels Group – 1800 111 000
Marriott – 1800 22 0044
Sarovar Park Plaza – 1800 111 222
Taj Holidays – 1800 111 825

Teleshoppin
Asian Sky Shop – 1800 22 1800
Jaipan Teleshoppe – 1800 11 5225
Tele Brands – 1800 11 8000
VMI Teleshopping – 1800 447 777
WWS Teleshopping – 1800 220 777

Others
Domino’s Pizza – 1800 111 123

Cell Phones
BenQ – 1800 22 08 08
Bird CellPhones – 1800 11 7700
Motorola MotoAssist – 1800 11 1211
Nokia – 3030 3838
Sony Ericsson – 3901 1111

Chandrayaan
I
(Lunar
Craft
),
is an unmanned lunar exploration mission by the Indian Space Research
Organization (ISRO). The mission includes a lunar orbiter as well as an
impactor. The spacecraft will be launched by a modified version of the
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.

The
remote sensing satellite will
weigh 1304 kg (590 kg initial orbit mass and 504 kg dry mass) and carry
high resolution remote sensing equipment for visible, near infrared,
soft and hard X-ray frequencies. Over a two-year period, it is intended
to survey the lunar surface to produce a complete map of its chemical
characteristics and 3-dimensional topography. The polar regions are of
special interest, as they might contain water ice.

The
ISRO has identified Mylswamy
Annadurai as Project Chief.

The
spacecraft is scheduled for
launch on October 22 with a window fixed between October 19 and October
28.

They
estimate the cost to be INR 3.8
billion (US$ 83 million).

The
mission includes five ISRO
payloads and six payloads from other international space agencies such
as NASA and ESA, and the Bulgarian Aerospace Agency.


Summary

Organization Indian Space Research
Organization
Mission type Orbiter
Satellite of Moon
Launch date 22nd October 2008 from
Sriharikota, AP, India
Launch vehicle Modified Version Of Polar
Satellite Launch Vehicle [PSLV-XL]
Mission duration 2 years
NSSDC ID CHANDRYN1
Mass 523 kg
Power 750 W
Orbital elements
Eccentricity near circular
Apoapsis initial 1000 km


Scientific Objectives
The Chandrayaan- 1 mission is aimed at
high-resolution remote sensing of the moon in visible, near
infrared(NIR) , low energy X-rays and high-energy X-ray regions.
Specifically the objectives will be
To prepare a three-dimensional atlas
(with a high
spatial and altitude resolution of 5-10m) of both near and far side of
the moon.
To conduct chemical and mineralogical
mapping of the
entire lunar surface for distribution of elements such as Magnesium,
Aluminum, Silicon, Calcium, Iron and Titanium with a spatial resolution
of about 25 km and high atomic number elements such as Radon, Uranium
& Thorium with a spatial resolution of about 20 km.

Simultaneous photo geological
and
chemical mapping will enable identification of different geological
units, which will test the early evolutionary history of the moon and
help in determining the nature and stratigraphy of the lunar crust.

Mission Objectives

To
launch and orbit a spacecraft in
lunar polar orbit and conduct scientific studies.

To
carry out high resolution mapping
of topographic features in 3D, distribution of various minerals and
elemental chemical species including radioactive nuclides covering the
entire lunar surface using a set of remote sensing payloads. The new
set of data would help in unraveling mysteries about the origin and
evolution of solar system in general and that of the moon in particular
or on its composition and mineralogy.

Realize
the mission goal of
harnessing the science payloads, lunar craft and the launch vehicle
with suitable ground support system including DSN station, integration
and testing, launching and achieving lunar orbit of ~100 km, in-orbit
operation of experiments, communication/ telecommand, telemetry data
reception, quick look data and archival for scientific utilization by
identified group of scientists.
Mission Sequence
The spacecraft would be launched
by PSLV-C11 in a
highly elliptical transfer orbit with perigee of about 240 km and an
apogee of about 24,000 km. Later, the spacecraft would be raised to
moon rendezvous orbit by multiple in-plane perigee maneuvers. These
maneuvers would help to achieve the required 3,86,000 km apogee of the
Lunar Transfer Trajectory (LTT).
After a quick estimate of the
achieved LTT a
mid-course correction will be imparted at the earliest opportunity. The
spacecraft coasts for about five and a half days in this trajectory
prior to the lunar encounter. The major maneuver of the mission, called
Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) that leads to lunar capture, would be
carried out at the peri-selene (nearest point in lunar orbit) leading
to successful lunar capture in a polar, near circular 1000 km-altitude
orbit.
After successful capture and
health checks, the
altitude is planned to be lowered through a series of in-plane
corrections to achieve the target altitude of 100 km circular polar
orbit.

Specific Areas of Study

High
resolution mineralogical and chemical imaging of permanently shadowed
north and south polar regions

Search
for surface or sub-surface
water-ice on the moon, specially at lunar pole

Identification
of chemical end
members of lunar high land rocks

Chemical
stratigraphy of lunar
crust by remote sensing of central upland of large lunar craters, South
Pole Aitken Region (SPAR) etc., where interior material may be expected

To
map the height variation of the
lunar surface features along the satellite track

Observation
of X-ray spectrum
greater than 10 keV and stereographic coverage of most of the moon’s
surface with 5m resolution, to provide new insights in understanding
the moon’s origin and evolution.

The Spacecraft –
Description.
Spacecraft for lunar mission
is :
Cuboid in shape of approximately
1.50 m side.
Weighing 1304 kg at launch and 590
kg at lunar orbit.
Accommodates eleven science
payloads.
3-axis stabilized spacecraft using
two star sensors, gyros and four reaction wheels.
The power generation would be
through a canted
single-sided solar array to provide required power during all phases of
the mission. This deployable solar array consisting of a single panel
generates 700W of peak power. Solar array along with yoke would be
stowed on the south deck of the spacecraft in the launch phase. During
eclipse spacecraft will be powered by Lithium ion (Li-Ion) batteries.
After deployment the solar panel
plane is canted by 30º to the spacecraft pitch axis.
The spacecraft employs a X-band,
0.7m diameter
parabolic antenna for payload data transmission. The antenna employs a
dual gimbal mechanism to track the earth station when the spacecraft is
in lunar orbit.
The spacecraft uses a bipropellant
integrated
propulsion system to reach lunar orbit as well as orbit and attitude
maintenance while orbiting the moon.
The propulsion system carries
required propellant for a mission life of 2 years, with adequate margin.
The Telemetry, Tracking &
Command (TTC) communication is in S-band frequency.
The scientific payload data
transmission is in X-band frequency..
The spacecraft has three Solid
State Recorders (SSRs) on board to record data from various payloads.
SSR-1 will store science
payload data and has capability of storing 32Gb data.
SSR-2 will store science
payload data along with
spacecraft attitude information (gyro and star sensor), satellite house
keeping and other auxiliary data. The storing capacity of SSR-2 is 8Gb.
M3 (Moon Mineralogy Mapper)
payload has an independent SSR with 10Gb capacity.


GROUND SEGMENT FOR
CHANDRAYAAN- 1 MISSION
Ground Segment for Chandrayaan- 1 comprises
three
major elements viz. Deep Space Station (DSN), Spacecraft Control Center
(SCC) and Indian Space Science Data Center (ISSDC). This trio of ground
facility ensures the success of the mission by providing to and fro
conduit of communication, securing good health of the spacecraft,
maintaining the orbit and attitude to the requirements of the mission
and conducting payload operations.The ground segment is also
responsible for making the science data available for the Technologists
/ Scientists along with auxiliary information, in addition to storage
of payload and spacecraft data.

Ground Segment for Chandrayaan- 1

Payload
The
scientific payload has a total
mass of 90 kg and contains six Indian instruments and six foreign
instruments.
  • The Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC)
    has 5 m resolution and a 40 km swath in the panchromatic band and will
    be used to produce a high-resolution map of the Moon.
  • The Hyper Spectral Imager
    (HySI)

    will perform mineralogical mapping in the 400-900 nm band with a
    spectral resolution of 15 nm and a spatial resolution of 80 m.
  • The Lunar Laser Ranging
    Instrument (LLRI)
    will determine the surface topography.
  • An X-ray fluorescence spectrometer C1XS
    covering 1- 10 keV with a ground resolution of 25 km
    and a Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM)
    to detect solar flux in the 1–10 keV range. C1XS will be used to map
    the abundance of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe at the surface, and will
    monitor the solar flux. This payload is a collaboration between
    Rutherford Appleton laboratory, U.K, ESA and ISRO.
  • A High Energy X-ray/gamma ray
    spectrometer (HEX)
    for 30- 200 keV measurements with ground
    resolution of 40 km, the HEX will measure U, Th, 210Pb, 222Rn
    degassing, and other radioactive elements
  • Moon Impact probe(MIP)
    developed by ISRO is in turn a small satellite that will be carried by
    Chandrayaan- 1 and will be ejected once it reaches 100 km orbit around
    moon, to impact on the moon. MIP carries three more instruments namely,
    a high resolution mass spectrometer, an S-Band altimeter and a video
    camera. The MIP also carries with it a picture of the Indian flag, it’s
    presence marking as only the fourth nation to place a flag on the moon
    after Russia, United States and Japan.
  • Among foreign payloads, The
    Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA)
    from ESA will map
    composition using low energy neutral atoms sputtered from the surface.
  • The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)
    from Brown University and JPL (funded by NASA) is an imaging
    spectrometer designed to map the surface mineral composition.
  • A near infrared spectrometer
    (SIR-2)
    from ESA, built at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research,
    Polish Academy of Science and University of Bergen, will also map the
    mineral composition using an infrared grating spectrometer. The
    instrument will be similar to that of the Smart-1 SIR.
  • S-band miniSAR from the
    APL
    at the Johns Hopkins University (funded by NASA) is the active SAR
    system to map lunar polar ice. The instrument will transmit right
    polarized radiation with a frequency of 2.5 GHz and will monitor the
    scattered left and right polarized radiation. The Fresnel reflectivity
    and the cicular polarization ratio (CPR) are the key parameters deduced
    from this measurments. Ice shows the Coherent Backscatter Opposition
    Effect which results in an enhancement of refelections and CPR. With
    the data the water content of the moon polar region can estimated..
  • Radiation Dose Monitor
    (RADOM-7) from Bulgaria is to map the radiation environment around the
    moon.
Launch
Vehicle – Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
The
Indian Space Research
Organisation (ISRO) built its Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) in
the early 90s. The 45 m tall PSLV with a lift-off mass of 295 tonne,
had its maiden success on October 15, 1994 when it launched India’s
IRS-P2 remote sensing satellite into a Polar Sun Synchronous Orbit
(SSO) of 820 km. Between 1996 and 2005, it has launched six more Indian
Remote Sensing satellites as well as HAMSAT, a micro satellite built by
ISRO for amateur radio communications into polar SSOs, one Indian
meteorological satellite into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).
During this period, PSLV has also launched four satellites from abroad
(TUBSAT and DLR-Bird from Germany, Proba from Belgium and KITSAT from
Republic of Korea) as piggyback payloads into polar SSOs. Thus, PSLV
has emerged as ISRO’s workhorse launch vehicle and proved its
reliability and versatility by scoring eight consecutive successes
between 1994-2005 periods in launching multiple payloads to both SSO as
well as GTO.
The first
Indian moon mission is proposed to be a lunar polar orbiter at an
altitude of about 100 km from the lunar surface.
Considering the
maturity of
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) demonstrated through
PSLV-C4/KALPANA- 1 mission, PSLV is chosen for the first lunar mission.
The upgraded version of PSLV viz., PSLV-C11 which has a liftoff weight
of 316 tonnes, will be used to inject 1304 kg mass spacecraft at 240 x
24,000 km orbit and the corresponding spacecraft mass is 590kg when the
target lunar orbit of 100 km is achieved..

Participating Groups

The following ISRO Centres
are participating in the Chandrayaan Mission -1
1. ISRO Headquarters, Bangalore,
India
2. ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC),
Bangalore, India
3. Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre
(VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram, India
4. Space Application Centre (SAC),
Ahmedabad, India
5. ISRO Telemetry , Tracking and
Command Network (ISTRAC), Bangalore, India
Visit Us @ www.friends-we.blogspot.com 6. Laboratory for Electro Optic
Systems (LEOS), Bangalore, India
7. Physical Research Laboratory
(PRL), Ahmedabad, India
8. Space Physics Laboratory (SPL),
VSSC, Thiruvananthapuram, India
9.. National Remote Sensing Agency
(NRSA), Hyderabad, India
10. Liquid Propulsion Systems
Center (LPSC) Bangalore & Mahendragiri, India
11. ISRO Inertial Systems Unit
(IISU),Thiruvananth apuram, India
International
Groups participating in Chandrayaan Mission -1 are
12. Rutherford Appleton
Laboratory, UK
13. Max Planck Institute for
Aeronomy, Lindau,Germany
14. Swedish Institute of Space
Physics, Kiruna, Sweden
15. Solar-Terrestrial Influences
Laboratory, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
16. Institute for Radiological
Protection and Nuclear Safety, France
17. Nuclear Physics Institute,
Czech Academy of Sciences, Czechoslovakia
18. Applied Physics Lab, Johns
Hopkins University, MD, USA
19. Naval Air Warfare Centre,
Chinalake, CA, USA
20. Brown University, USA
21. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA
22. Centre d’Etude Spatiale des
Rayonnements, Toulouse, France
23. University of Helsinki, Finland
Chandrayaan II

ISRO is also
planning a second version of Chandrayaan named: Chandrayaan II.
According to ISRO Chairman G. Madhavan Nair, “The Indian Space Research
Organisation (ISRO) hopes to land a motorised rover on the moon in 2010
or 2011, as a part of its second Chandrayaan mission. The rover will be
designed to move on wheels on the lunar surface, pick up samples of
soil or rocks, do in situ chemical analysis and send the data to the
mother-spacecraft Chandrayaan II, which will be orbiting above.
Chandrayaan II will transmit the data to the ground. We are trying to
conceive an experiment in which the system will land on the lunar
surface, move around and pick up samples, do their chemical analysis
and transmit the data back to the ground.”

On
12-11-2007 representatives of the
Russian Federal Space Agency and ISRO signed an agreement for the two
agencies to work together on the Chandrayaan II project.

Chandrayaan
II will consist of the
spacecraft itself and a landing platform with the moon rover. The
platform with the rover will detach from the orbiter after the
spacecraft reaches its orbit above the moon, and land on lunar soil.
Then the rover will roll out of the platform. Mylswamy Annadurai,
Project Director, Chandrayaan I, said: “Chandrayaan II will carry a
semi-hard or soft-landing system. A motorised rover will be released on
the moon’s surface from the lander. The location for the lander will be
identified using Chandrayaan I data.”

The
rover will weigh between 30 kg
and 100 kg, depending on whether it is to do a semi-hard landing or
soft landing. The rover will have an operating life-span of a month. It
will run predominantly on solar power. Launch Date – 2010/2011

NASA LUNAR BASE

According
to Ben Bussey, senior staff
scientist at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in
Laurel, Maryland, Chandrayaan’ s imagery will be used to decide the
future Moon Base that NASA has recently announced. Bussey told
SPACE.com, “India’s Chandrayaan- 1 lunar orbiter has a good shot at
further identifying possible water ice-laden spots with a U.S.-provided
low-power imaging radar, Bussey advised–one of two U.S. experiments on
the Indian Moon probe. The idea is that we find regions of interest
with Chandrayaan- 1 radar. We would investigate those using all the
capabilities of the radar on NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter,
Bussey added, a Moon probe to be launched late in 2008.” The launch
date for the LRO has since been delayed to February 2009.


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