Collections of Dilip Prakash

Chandrayaan 1 – India’s First Mission To Moon

Posted on: October 24, 2008

Chandrayaan
I
(Lunar
Craft
),
is an unmanned lunar exploration mission by the Indian Space Research
Organization (ISRO). The mission includes a lunar orbiter as well as an
impactor. The spacecraft will be launched by a modified version of the
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.

The
remote sensing satellite will
weigh 1304 kg (590 kg initial orbit mass and 504 kg dry mass) and carry
high resolution remote sensing equipment for visible, near infrared,
soft and hard X-ray frequencies. Over a two-year period, it is intended
to survey the lunar surface to produce a complete map of its chemical
characteristics and 3-dimensional topography. The polar regions are of
special interest, as they might contain water ice.

The
ISRO has identified Mylswamy
Annadurai as Project Chief.

The
spacecraft is scheduled for
launch on October 22 with a window fixed between October 19 and October
28.

They
estimate the cost to be INR 3.8
billion (US$ 83 million).

The
mission includes five ISRO
payloads and six payloads from other international space agencies such
as NASA and ESA, and the Bulgarian Aerospace Agency.


Summary

Organization Indian Space Research
Organization
Mission type Orbiter
Satellite of Moon
Launch date 22nd October 2008 from
Sriharikota, AP, India
Launch vehicle Modified Version Of Polar
Satellite Launch Vehicle [PSLV-XL]
Mission duration 2 years
NSSDC ID CHANDRYN1
Mass 523 kg
Power 750 W
Orbital elements
Eccentricity near circular
Apoapsis initial 1000 km


Scientific Objectives
The Chandrayaan- 1 mission is aimed at
high-resolution remote sensing of the moon in visible, near
infrared(NIR) , low energy X-rays and high-energy X-ray regions.
Specifically the objectives will be
To prepare a three-dimensional atlas
(with a high
spatial and altitude resolution of 5-10m) of both near and far side of
the moon.
To conduct chemical and mineralogical
mapping of the
entire lunar surface for distribution of elements such as Magnesium,
Aluminum, Silicon, Calcium, Iron and Titanium with a spatial resolution
of about 25 km and high atomic number elements such as Radon, Uranium
& Thorium with a spatial resolution of about 20 km.

Simultaneous photo geological
and
chemical mapping will enable identification of different geological
units, which will test the early evolutionary history of the moon and
help in determining the nature and stratigraphy of the lunar crust.

Mission Objectives

To
launch and orbit a spacecraft in
lunar polar orbit and conduct scientific studies.

To
carry out high resolution mapping
of topographic features in 3D, distribution of various minerals and
elemental chemical species including radioactive nuclides covering the
entire lunar surface using a set of remote sensing payloads. The new
set of data would help in unraveling mysteries about the origin and
evolution of solar system in general and that of the moon in particular
or on its composition and mineralogy.

Realize
the mission goal of
harnessing the science payloads, lunar craft and the launch vehicle
with suitable ground support system including DSN station, integration
and testing, launching and achieving lunar orbit of ~100 km, in-orbit
operation of experiments, communication/ telecommand, telemetry data
reception, quick look data and archival for scientific utilization by
identified group of scientists.
Mission Sequence
The spacecraft would be launched
by PSLV-C11 in a
highly elliptical transfer orbit with perigee of about 240 km and an
apogee of about 24,000 km. Later, the spacecraft would be raised to
moon rendezvous orbit by multiple in-plane perigee maneuvers. These
maneuvers would help to achieve the required 3,86,000 km apogee of the
Lunar Transfer Trajectory (LTT).
After a quick estimate of the
achieved LTT a
mid-course correction will be imparted at the earliest opportunity. The
spacecraft coasts for about five and a half days in this trajectory
prior to the lunar encounter. The major maneuver of the mission, called
Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) that leads to lunar capture, would be
carried out at the peri-selene (nearest point in lunar orbit) leading
to successful lunar capture in a polar, near circular 1000 km-altitude
orbit.
After successful capture and
health checks, the
altitude is planned to be lowered through a series of in-plane
corrections to achieve the target altitude of 100 km circular polar
orbit.

Specific Areas of Study

High
resolution mineralogical and chemical imaging of permanently shadowed
north and south polar regions

Search
for surface or sub-surface
water-ice on the moon, specially at lunar pole

Identification
of chemical end
members of lunar high land rocks

Chemical
stratigraphy of lunar
crust by remote sensing of central upland of large lunar craters, South
Pole Aitken Region (SPAR) etc., where interior material may be expected

To
map the height variation of the
lunar surface features along the satellite track

Observation
of X-ray spectrum
greater than 10 keV and stereographic coverage of most of the moon’s
surface with 5m resolution, to provide new insights in understanding
the moon’s origin and evolution.

The Spacecraft –
Description.
Spacecraft for lunar mission
is :
Cuboid in shape of approximately
1.50 m side.
Weighing 1304 kg at launch and 590
kg at lunar orbit.
Accommodates eleven science
payloads.
3-axis stabilized spacecraft using
two star sensors, gyros and four reaction wheels.
The power generation would be
through a canted
single-sided solar array to provide required power during all phases of
the mission. This deployable solar array consisting of a single panel
generates 700W of peak power. Solar array along with yoke would be
stowed on the south deck of the spacecraft in the launch phase. During
eclipse spacecraft will be powered by Lithium ion (Li-Ion) batteries.
After deployment the solar panel
plane is canted by 30º to the spacecraft pitch axis.
The spacecraft employs a X-band,
0.7m diameter
parabolic antenna for payload data transmission. The antenna employs a
dual gimbal mechanism to track the earth station when the spacecraft is
in lunar orbit.
The spacecraft uses a bipropellant
integrated
propulsion system to reach lunar orbit as well as orbit and attitude
maintenance while orbiting the moon.
The propulsion system carries
required propellant for a mission life of 2 years, with adequate margin.
The Telemetry, Tracking &
Command (TTC) communication is in S-band frequency.
The scientific payload data
transmission is in X-band frequency..
The spacecraft has three Solid
State Recorders (SSRs) on board to record data from various payloads.
SSR-1 will store science
payload data and has capability of storing 32Gb data.
SSR-2 will store science
payload data along with
spacecraft attitude information (gyro and star sensor), satellite house
keeping and other auxiliary data. The storing capacity of SSR-2 is 8Gb.
M3 (Moon Mineralogy Mapper)
payload has an independent SSR with 10Gb capacity.


GROUND SEGMENT FOR
CHANDRAYAAN- 1 MISSION
Ground Segment for Chandrayaan- 1 comprises
three
major elements viz. Deep Space Station (DSN), Spacecraft Control Center
(SCC) and Indian Space Science Data Center (ISSDC). This trio of ground
facility ensures the success of the mission by providing to and fro
conduit of communication, securing good health of the spacecraft,
maintaining the orbit and attitude to the requirements of the mission
and conducting payload operations.The ground segment is also
responsible for making the science data available for the Technologists
/ Scientists along with auxiliary information, in addition to storage
of payload and spacecraft data.

Ground Segment for Chandrayaan- 1

Payload
The
scientific payload has a total
mass of 90 kg and contains six Indian instruments and six foreign
instruments.
  • The Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC)
    has 5 m resolution and a 40 km swath in the panchromatic band and will
    be used to produce a high-resolution map of the Moon.
  • The Hyper Spectral Imager
    (HySI)

    will perform mineralogical mapping in the 400-900 nm band with a
    spectral resolution of 15 nm and a spatial resolution of 80 m.
  • The Lunar Laser Ranging
    Instrument (LLRI)
    will determine the surface topography.
  • An X-ray fluorescence spectrometer C1XS
    covering 1- 10 keV with a ground resolution of 25 km
    and a Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM)
    to detect solar flux in the 1–10 keV range. C1XS will be used to map
    the abundance of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe at the surface, and will
    monitor the solar flux. This payload is a collaboration between
    Rutherford Appleton laboratory, U.K, ESA and ISRO.
  • A High Energy X-ray/gamma ray
    spectrometer (HEX)
    for 30- 200 keV measurements with ground
    resolution of 40 km, the HEX will measure U, Th, 210Pb, 222Rn
    degassing, and other radioactive elements
  • Moon Impact probe(MIP)
    developed by ISRO is in turn a small satellite that will be carried by
    Chandrayaan- 1 and will be ejected once it reaches 100 km orbit around
    moon, to impact on the moon. MIP carries three more instruments namely,
    a high resolution mass spectrometer, an S-Band altimeter and a video
    camera. The MIP also carries with it a picture of the Indian flag, it’s
    presence marking as only the fourth nation to place a flag on the moon
    after Russia, United States and Japan.
  • Among foreign payloads, The
    Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA)
    from ESA will map
    composition using low energy neutral atoms sputtered from the surface.
  • The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)
    from Brown University and JPL (funded by NASA) is an imaging
    spectrometer designed to map the surface mineral composition.
  • A near infrared spectrometer
    (SIR-2)
    from ESA, built at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research,
    Polish Academy of Science and University of Bergen, will also map the
    mineral composition using an infrared grating spectrometer. The
    instrument will be similar to that of the Smart-1 SIR.
  • S-band miniSAR from the
    APL
    at the Johns Hopkins University (funded by NASA) is the active SAR
    system to map lunar polar ice. The instrument will transmit right
    polarized radiation with a frequency of 2.5 GHz and will monitor the
    scattered left and right polarized radiation. The Fresnel reflectivity
    and the cicular polarization ratio (CPR) are the key parameters deduced
    from this measurments. Ice shows the Coherent Backscatter Opposition
    Effect which results in an enhancement of refelections and CPR. With
    the data the water content of the moon polar region can estimated..
  • Radiation Dose Monitor
    (RADOM-7) from Bulgaria is to map the radiation environment around the
    moon.
Launch
Vehicle – Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
The
Indian Space Research
Organisation (ISRO) built its Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) in
the early 90s. The 45 m tall PSLV with a lift-off mass of 295 tonne,
had its maiden success on October 15, 1994 when it launched India’s
IRS-P2 remote sensing satellite into a Polar Sun Synchronous Orbit
(SSO) of 820 km. Between 1996 and 2005, it has launched six more Indian
Remote Sensing satellites as well as HAMSAT, a micro satellite built by
ISRO for amateur radio communications into polar SSOs, one Indian
meteorological satellite into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).
During this period, PSLV has also launched four satellites from abroad
(TUBSAT and DLR-Bird from Germany, Proba from Belgium and KITSAT from
Republic of Korea) as piggyback payloads into polar SSOs. Thus, PSLV
has emerged as ISRO’s workhorse launch vehicle and proved its
reliability and versatility by scoring eight consecutive successes
between 1994-2005 periods in launching multiple payloads to both SSO as
well as GTO.
The first
Indian moon mission is proposed to be a lunar polar orbiter at an
altitude of about 100 km from the lunar surface.
Considering the
maturity of
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) demonstrated through
PSLV-C4/KALPANA- 1 mission, PSLV is chosen for the first lunar mission.
The upgraded version of PSLV viz., PSLV-C11 which has a liftoff weight
of 316 tonnes, will be used to inject 1304 kg mass spacecraft at 240 x
24,000 km orbit and the corresponding spacecraft mass is 590kg when the
target lunar orbit of 100 km is achieved..

Participating Groups

The following ISRO Centres
are participating in the Chandrayaan Mission -1
1. ISRO Headquarters, Bangalore,
India
2. ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC),
Bangalore, India
3. Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre
(VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram, India
4. Space Application Centre (SAC),
Ahmedabad, India
5. ISRO Telemetry , Tracking and
Command Network (ISTRAC), Bangalore, India
Visit Us @ www.friends-we.blogspot.com 6. Laboratory for Electro Optic
Systems (LEOS), Bangalore, India
7. Physical Research Laboratory
(PRL), Ahmedabad, India
8. Space Physics Laboratory (SPL),
VSSC, Thiruvananthapuram, India
9.. National Remote Sensing Agency
(NRSA), Hyderabad, India
10. Liquid Propulsion Systems
Center (LPSC) Bangalore & Mahendragiri, India
11. ISRO Inertial Systems Unit
(IISU),Thiruvananth apuram, India
International
Groups participating in Chandrayaan Mission -1 are
12. Rutherford Appleton
Laboratory, UK
13. Max Planck Institute for
Aeronomy, Lindau,Germany
14. Swedish Institute of Space
Physics, Kiruna, Sweden
15. Solar-Terrestrial Influences
Laboratory, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
16. Institute for Radiological
Protection and Nuclear Safety, France
17. Nuclear Physics Institute,
Czech Academy of Sciences, Czechoslovakia
18. Applied Physics Lab, Johns
Hopkins University, MD, USA
19. Naval Air Warfare Centre,
Chinalake, CA, USA
20. Brown University, USA
21. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA
22. Centre d’Etude Spatiale des
Rayonnements, Toulouse, France
23. University of Helsinki, Finland
Chandrayaan II

ISRO is also
planning a second version of Chandrayaan named: Chandrayaan II.
According to ISRO Chairman G. Madhavan Nair, “The Indian Space Research
Organisation (ISRO) hopes to land a motorised rover on the moon in 2010
or 2011, as a part of its second Chandrayaan mission. The rover will be
designed to move on wheels on the lunar surface, pick up samples of
soil or rocks, do in situ chemical analysis and send the data to the
mother-spacecraft Chandrayaan II, which will be orbiting above.
Chandrayaan II will transmit the data to the ground. We are trying to
conceive an experiment in which the system will land on the lunar
surface, move around and pick up samples, do their chemical analysis
and transmit the data back to the ground.”

On
12-11-2007 representatives of the
Russian Federal Space Agency and ISRO signed an agreement for the two
agencies to work together on the Chandrayaan II project.

Chandrayaan
II will consist of the
spacecraft itself and a landing platform with the moon rover. The
platform with the rover will detach from the orbiter after the
spacecraft reaches its orbit above the moon, and land on lunar soil.
Then the rover will roll out of the platform. Mylswamy Annadurai,
Project Director, Chandrayaan I, said: “Chandrayaan II will carry a
semi-hard or soft-landing system. A motorised rover will be released on
the moon’s surface from the lander. The location for the lander will be
identified using Chandrayaan I data.”

The
rover will weigh between 30 kg
and 100 kg, depending on whether it is to do a semi-hard landing or
soft landing. The rover will have an operating life-span of a month. It
will run predominantly on solar power. Launch Date – 2010/2011

NASA LUNAR BASE

According
to Ben Bussey, senior staff
scientist at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in
Laurel, Maryland, Chandrayaan’ s imagery will be used to decide the
future Moon Base that NASA has recently announced. Bussey told
SPACE.com, “India’s Chandrayaan- 1 lunar orbiter has a good shot at
further identifying possible water ice-laden spots with a U.S.-provided
low-power imaging radar, Bussey advised–one of two U.S. experiments on
the Indian Moon probe. The idea is that we find regions of interest
with Chandrayaan- 1 radar. We would investigate those using all the
capabilities of the radar on NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter,
Bussey added, a Moon probe to be launched late in 2008.” The launch
date for the LRO has since been delayed to February 2009.

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