Chandrayaan 1 – India’s First Mission To Moon
Posted October 24, 2008on:
is an unmanned lunar exploration mission by the Indian Space Research
Organization (ISRO). The mission includes a lunar orbiter as well as an
impactor. The spacecraft will be launched by a modified version of the
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.
remote sensing satellite will
weigh 1304 kg (590 kg initial orbit mass and 504 kg dry mass) and carry
high resolution remote sensing equipment for visible, near infrared,
soft and hard X-ray frequencies. Over a two-year period, it is intended
to survey the lunar surface to produce a complete map of its chemical
characteristics and 3-dimensional topography. The polar regions are of
special interest, as they might contain water ice.
ISRO has identified Mylswamy
Annadurai as Project Chief.
spacecraft is scheduled for
launch on October 22 with a window fixed between October 19 and October
estimate the cost to be INR 3.8
billion (US$ 83 million).
mission includes five ISRO
payloads and six payloads from other international space agencies such
as NASA and ESA, and the Bulgarian Aerospace Agency.
|Organization||Indian Space Research
|Launch date||22nd October 2008 from
Sriharikota, AP, India
|Launch vehicle||Modified Version Of Polar
Satellite Launch Vehicle [PSLV-XL]
|Mission duration||2 years|
|Apoapsis||initial 1000 km|
|The Chandrayaan- 1 mission is aimed at
high-resolution remote sensing of the moon in visible, near
infrared(NIR) , low energy X-rays and high-energy X-ray regions.
Specifically the objectives will be
Simultaneous photo geological
chemical mapping will enable identification of different geological
units, which will test the early evolutionary history of the moon and
help in determining the nature and stratigraphy of the lunar crust.
launch and orbit a spacecraft in
lunar polar orbit and conduct scientific studies.
carry out high resolution mapping
of topographic features in 3D, distribution of various minerals and
elemental chemical species including radioactive nuclides covering the
entire lunar surface using a set of remote sensing payloads. The new
set of data would help in unraveling mysteries about the origin and
evolution of solar system in general and that of the moon in particular
or on its composition and mineralogy.
the mission goal of
harnessing the science payloads, lunar craft and the launch vehicle
with suitable ground support system including DSN station, integration
and testing, launching and achieving lunar orbit of ~100 km, in-orbit
operation of experiments, communication/ telecommand, telemetry data
reception, quick look data and archival for scientific utilization by
identified group of scientists.
Specific Areas of Study
resolution mineralogical and chemical imaging of permanently shadowed
north and south polar regions
for surface or sub-surface
water-ice on the moon, specially at lunar pole
of chemical end
members of lunar high land rocks
stratigraphy of lunar
crust by remote sensing of central upland of large lunar craters, South
Pole Aitken Region (SPAR) etc., where interior material may be expected
map the height variation of the
lunar surface features along the satellite track
of X-ray spectrum
greater than 10 keV and stereographic coverage of most of the moon’s
surface with 5m resolution, to provide new insights in understanding
the moon’s origin and evolution.
|GROUND SEGMENT FOR
CHANDRAYAAN- 1 MISSION
|Ground Segment for Chandrayaan- 1 comprises
major elements viz. Deep Space Station (DSN), Spacecraft Control Center
(SCC) and Indian Space Science Data Center (ISSDC). This trio of ground
facility ensures the success of the mission by providing to and fro
conduit of communication, securing good health of the spacecraft,
maintaining the orbit and attitude to the requirements of the mission
and conducting payload operations.The ground segment is also
responsible for making the science data available for the Technologists
/ Scientists along with auxiliary information, in addition to storage
of payload and spacecraft data.
Ground Segment for Chandrayaan- 1
scientific payload has a total
mass of 90 kg and contains six Indian instruments and six foreign
- The Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC)
has 5 m resolution and a 40 km swath in the panchromatic band and will
be used to produce a high-resolution map of the Moon.
- The Hyper Spectral Imager
will perform mineralogical mapping in the 400-900 nm band with a
spectral resolution of 15 nm and a spatial resolution of 80 m.
- The Lunar Laser Ranging
Instrument (LLRI) will determine the surface topography.
- An X-ray fluorescence spectrometer C1XS
covering 1- 10 keV with a ground resolution of 25 km
and a Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM)
to detect solar flux in the 1–10 keV range. C1XS will be used to map
the abundance of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe at the surface, and will
monitor the solar flux. This payload is a collaboration between
Rutherford Appleton laboratory, U.K, ESA and ISRO.
- A High Energy X-ray/gamma ray
spectrometer (HEX) for 30- 200 keV measurements with ground
resolution of 40 km, the HEX will measure U, Th, 210Pb, 222Rn
degassing, and other radioactive elements
- Moon Impact probe(MIP)
developed by ISRO is in turn a small satellite that will be carried by
Chandrayaan- 1 and will be ejected once it reaches 100 km orbit around
moon, to impact on the moon. MIP carries three more instruments namely,
a high resolution mass spectrometer, an S-Band altimeter and a video
camera. The MIP also carries with it a picture of the Indian flag, it’s
presence marking as only the fourth nation to place a flag on the moon
after Russia, United States and Japan.
- Among foreign payloads, The
Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) from ESA will map
composition using low energy neutral atoms sputtered from the surface.
- The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)
from Brown University and JPL (funded by NASA) is an imaging
spectrometer designed to map the surface mineral composition.
- A near infrared spectrometer
from ESA, built at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research,
Polish Academy of Science and University of Bergen, will also map the
mineral composition using an infrared grating spectrometer. The
instrument will be similar to that of the Smart-1 SIR.
- S-band miniSAR from the
at the Johns Hopkins University (funded by NASA) is the active SAR
system to map lunar polar ice. The instrument will transmit right
polarized radiation with a frequency of 2.5 GHz and will monitor the
scattered left and right polarized radiation. The Fresnel reflectivity
and the cicular polarization ratio (CPR) are the key parameters deduced
from this measurments. Ice shows the Coherent Backscatter Opposition
Effect which results in an enhancement of refelections and CPR. With
the data the water content of the moon polar region can estimated..
- Radiation Dose Monitor
(RADOM-7) from Bulgaria is to map the radiation environment around the
ISRO is also
planning a second version of Chandrayaan named: Chandrayaan II.
According to ISRO Chairman G. Madhavan Nair, “The Indian Space Research
Organisation (ISRO) hopes to land a motorised rover on the moon in 2010
or 2011, as a part of its second Chandrayaan mission. The rover will be
designed to move on wheels on the lunar surface, pick up samples of
soil or rocks, do in situ chemical analysis and send the data to the
mother-spacecraft Chandrayaan II, which will be orbiting above.
Chandrayaan II will transmit the data to the ground. We are trying to
conceive an experiment in which the system will land on the lunar
surface, move around and pick up samples, do their chemical analysis
and transmit the data back to the ground.”
12-11-2007 representatives of the
Russian Federal Space Agency and ISRO signed an agreement for the two
agencies to work together on the Chandrayaan II project.
II will consist of the
spacecraft itself and a landing platform with the moon rover. The
platform with the rover will detach from the orbiter after the
spacecraft reaches its orbit above the moon, and land on lunar soil.
Then the rover will roll out of the platform. Mylswamy Annadurai,
Project Director, Chandrayaan I, said: “Chandrayaan II will carry a
semi-hard or soft-landing system. A motorised rover will be released on
the moon’s surface from the lander. The location for the lander will be
identified using Chandrayaan I data.”
rover will weigh between 30 kg
and 100 kg, depending on whether it is to do a semi-hard landing or
soft landing. The rover will have an operating life-span of a month. It
will run predominantly on solar power. Launch Date – 2010/2011
to Ben Bussey, senior staff
scientist at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in
Laurel, Maryland, Chandrayaan’ s imagery will be used to decide the
future Moon Base that NASA has recently announced. Bussey told
SPACE.com, “India’s Chandrayaan- 1 lunar orbiter has a good shot at
further identifying possible water ice-laden spots with a U.S.-provided
low-power imaging radar, Bussey advised–one of two U.S. experiments on
the Indian Moon probe. The idea is that we find regions of interest
with Chandrayaan- 1 radar. We would investigate those using all the
capabilities of the radar on NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter,
Bussey added, a Moon probe to be launched late in 2008.” The launch
date for the LRO has since been delayed to February 2009.